Introduction

In the last four decades the Black Sea has suffered important changes induced by human activities. Some 162 million people live in the catchment area of the Black Sea and they make extraordinary demands on its resources. Waste from towns and cities, farms and factories pours into the Black Sea; some comes directly from the coast, but most flows relentlessly from the region’s major rivers, River Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Hence, coming trends will depend largely on human-related menaces. Depending on place and time ecologists have been principally interested in eutrophication, heavy metals, synthetic chemicals, radionuclides sedimentation, acid-rain and hot water. Airborne pollution also contaminates the sea; while the consequences of a changing climate brought about by greenhouse gases building up in the atmosphere seem certain to add to the stress already suffered by the Black Sea environment. A special threat comes from the many big ships or petrol tankers. Coupled with the unremitting pressure from the effects of the fıshing industry, and the tourist developments that are destroying the natural life that attracts thousands people to the region every year, it is not surprising that the Black Sea is one of the world’s most threatened marine ecosystems. This review is to make a general assessment of the pollution of the Black Sea coast of Turkey.

“The Black Sea is one of the most interesting seas of the word both in scientific and non-scientific aspects. Its history is full romantic and dramatic events. Its diverse marine fauna has been influenced by the long and short term (geological, climatic, hydrological) natural and anthropogenic processes of the last three decades”(Kovalev et al.,1999 -Tr.J. of Zoology 23:195-209)

Despite its relatively large surface area (423,500 km2) and water volume (537,000 km3), only a thin surface layer (about 10% of the average total depth) of the Black Sea supports eukaryotic life. The water mass below 150 to 200 m is devoid of dissolved oxygen, making the Black Sea the largest anoxic body of water in the world.

In addition, of the numerous industrial, sewage and agricultural wastes reach the Black Sea through some rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper, Dniester, Don, Southern Bug, Chorokh, Rioni, Yesilirmak, Kizilirmak, Sakarya that are heavily polluted in several places. The dumping of wastes in the Black Sea provides a significant source of metal and nutrients input.

The main area of Turkey, known as Anatolia, is in Asia while Turkish Thrace, representing about 3% of the nation’s total area, is in Europe. Its capital is Ankara, and Istanbul is the largest city. About 80 million people live in Turkey. One of the most critical developments of the last decades, as critical as the population explosion, is the vast shift of population from the countryside to the cities. The Turkish Black Sea coastal towns and major rivers

According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT, 2016) data (available online at: www.tuik.gov.tr) waste generation per capita and municipal wastes in the major cities bordering the Turkish Black Sea coast were as following; 

Sinop: The population of 2015 is 204 133 persons. In 2014, average amount of waste per capita was 1.41 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 57 592 tons / year.

 Artvin: The population of 2015 was 168 370 persons. In 2014, average waste per capita was 1 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 37 501 tons / year. 

Rize: The population in 2015 was 328 979 persons. In 2014, average amount of waste per person was 0.97 kg / person days and the amount of municipal waste collected was 78 516 tons / year. 

Trabzon: The population in 2015 was 768 417. In 2014, average amount of waste per capita was 0.67 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was186 60 tons / year. 

Giresun: The population in 2015 was 428 686. In 2014, the average amount of municipal waste per capita was 1.12 kg / person-day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 112 929 tons / year.

Ordu: The population in 2015 was 728 949. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 0.8 kg / person days and the amount of municipal waste collected was 186 064 tons / year. 

Samsun: The population in 2015 was 1 279 884. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 0.93 kg / person days and the amount of municipal waste collected was 369 816 tons / year. Kastamonu: The population in 2015 was 372 633. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 1.72 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 129 901 tons / year. Zonguldak: Population in 2015 was 595 707. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 1.21 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 183 989 tons / year. 

Bartın: The population in 2015 was 190 708. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 1.3 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 41 393 tons / year. 

Düzce: Population in 2015 was 360 388. In 2014, the average amount of waste per capita was 1.49 kg / person day. And the collected municipal waste amount was 122 298 tons / year in 2014

Sakarya: In 2015 population was 953 181. In 2014, the average amount of waste per person was 1 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 339 826 tons / year. 

Kocaeli: The population in 2015 was 1 780 055. In 2014, The average amount of waste per capita was 0.91 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 573 414 tons / year.

 İstanbul: The population in 2015 was 14 657 434. In 2014, the average amount of waste per person was 1.16 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 6 064 688 tons/year.

Kırklareli: Population in 2015 was 351 684. In 2014, the average amount of waste per person 1.3 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected is 129 801 tons / year. 

Tekirdağ: Population in 2015 was 937 910. In 2014, the average amount of waste per person was 1.2 kg / person day and the amount of municipal waste collected was 396 813 tons / year. P

 

References 

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Author: Fatma Sezen Katrancı – Of Chamber of Agriculture – Trapzon, Turkey

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