The Black Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia; east of the Balkans in Southeastern Europe, south of the East European Plain in Eastern Europe, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia in Western Asia. It is supplied by major rivers, principally the Danube, Dnieper and Don. The watersheds of many countries drain into the sea beyond the six that share its coas.

The fauna is mainly represented by worms, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and dolphins, in the aquatic environment and fish consuming fish, in the nearby aerial and above the Pontic basin.

Black Sea fauna

In the marine fauna of the Black Sea we can find:

Seahorse (Hypocampus hypocampus)

The sea horse lives among the seagrass bushes and algae, a short distance from the shore. This fish that looks like a chess piece, measures 10-12 cm. It is interesting that the chicks grow in a bag located under the male’s abdomen, from where, after 2-3 weeks, they spread in the sea water. The sea horse can change its body color to adapt to the environment and protect itself from enemies.

Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

The common dolphin has a gray-black back with greenish reflections. The sides of the body are gray and the abdomen whitish. The snout is suitable for elongation, the mandible protrudes beyond the jaw, and the forehead is slightly flattened in the anterior part. It feeds on crustaceans, cephalopod molluscs, but also on the herds of sardines, anchovies, flying fish (in the Mediterranean). It has a length between 1.5-1.8 m and a weight of up to 55 kg (in exceptional cases, it reaches 100 kg). The maximum lifespan of individuals of the species is 22 years (males) and 20 years (females). It lives along the coast, at shallow depths.

Sea turtle (Caretta caretta)

This species, less common in our country, is generally large, so that adults can reach even 1.2 m and weigh up to 200 kg. As a rule, the sea turtle lives in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, rarely penetrating the Black Sea, from where it can accidentally reach the Romanian beaches. It has a large head, strong jaws, and the forelimbs are in the shape of a blade and provided with two claws. It is omnivorous, feeding on fish and other marine animals.

Sea Swallow (Trigla lucerna)

The sea swallow is a rare marine fish, measuring around 65 cm and weighing almost 3 kg. It has a brightly colored body, covered with small scales. The pectoral fins, which suggest the shape of the swallow’s wings, extend like bent claws, with the help of which the fish can crawl on the seabed. Due to its vivid colors, the sea swallow is one of the most beautiful species of fish in the Black Sea.

Black Sea fauna in the coastal area of ​​Romania

The sea horse – Hippocampus guttulatus – is one of the most charismatic species in the Black Sea, arousing interest for use in the aquarium, increasingly developed, or simply being sold illegally as a souvenir and curiosity. It lives on stony bottoms, clinging to the tail of marine plants and swims upright with its back. The sea horse has one of the rarest reproductive strategies in the animal world: pregnancy / gestation in males, the latter being those who fertilize and then incubate the eggs that the female previously laid in the incubator bag.

The sea scorpion – Scorpaena porcus – is a fish that lives in the rocky bottom regions of the Black Sea. It measures 15-20 centimeters, very rarely 30 centimeters. The head is covered with bone plates and in front of the eyes it is protected from tentacles. The body is brown, with black spots and has a hunchbacked appearance. The fins of the sea scorpion have venomous spines, the secreted venom, similar to that of the sea dragon, can produce anaphylactic shock. The sea scorpion has the ability to change its body color (mimicry) to adapt to the environment.

The turbot – Psetta maeotica – is a demersal species of fish that is of great importance, being suitable for industrial fishing and can give a chance to relaunch marine fisheries. It usually reaches up to 50 centimeters and 3 – 3.5 kg, respectively, in the area of ​​the Romanian coast being more abundant in the Agigea – Vama Veche sector. The body of the adults is covered with rudimentary scales and bony buds that are missing in the brood; the upper face is gray, sand-colored, with white and black spots and in adults the color turns brown and the spots disappear. The underside is white, rarely with some blackish spots. The possibility of adapting its color to that of the environment (homochromia) is very developed in this species.

Actinia – Actinia equina – is the most widespread actinia in the circumeuropean seas. The polyp can reach up to 5-6 centimeters in diameter, has an olive-green or reddish color, the adhesive disc having a purple or reddish ring. It is a characteristic species of the association dominated by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from shallow depths.

The sea sponge – Halichondria panicea – is a petrified, infralittoral species, found in the Black Sea, but relatively rare on the Romanian coast.


Author: Camelia Franț – ECOM Team Romania

Leave a Reply

Your email adress will not be published. Required fileds are marked *