Due to pollution and unpopulation at the right time of the entire Black Sea basin, with various species of fish the risk of their extinction is inevitable.
Therefore, each of us must intervene so that the Black Sea species do not disappear, and the marine environment in which they live helps to develop them.
The following endangered or already extinct species in the entire Black Sea basin are:
1. Acipenser sturgeon – has not been reported in Romania;
2. Acipenser mediventus – once found in the Danube, in the last 20 years only a few specimens have been captured;
3. Leuciscus leuciscus – may exist in some rivers;
4. Great Oblet (Chalcalburnus chalcoides mento);
5. Varga (Stizostedian volgeure) – may exist in some Danube ponds;
6. Gasterosteus aculeatus crenobiontus – subspecies characteristic of the freshwater springs of Lake Techirghiol. Today he is gone;
7. The striped clean (Leuciscus souffia agassizi) – found in the Tisza and some tributaries;
8. Great Bean (Cobitis elongata) – found only in the Nera River.
Living conditions in stagnant waters in Romania have changed a lot, especially due to the influence of anthropogenic factors: dams, dams, water quality and pollution, sand quarries, navigation, introduction of new fish species and parasites, overfishing and poaching.
The species of fish that have managed to adapt to these exchanges have disappeared or are on the verge of extinction. Knowing the fish species that exist is of great importance for maintaining the genofond, especially those that are endangered. The protection of fish species depends on the state policy and the available possibilities of the society.
In September 2007, the “Global Plan of Action” for Animal Genetic Resources has been adopted in Interlaken, Switzerland. The plan recommends countries’ governments demonstrate their political will to support and mobilize each country’s animal genetic resources. Only by protecting the biodiversity of the species can the food security of the human population be ensured in the future. Without immediate measures, there is a risk of the irretrievable loss of many fish species in our country.
Among these measures one of them would be the imposition of programs for education and scientific and technical training on measures to identify, conserve and use the biodiversity of species.
In order to repopulate the Black Sea basin with fish species, last year, 700 specimens of the Nisetru species were released in the Danube, one week before the World Migratory Fish Day, celebrated globally on October 24.
This is a repopulation event organized in Isaccea in 2020 by the National Research and Development Institute “Danube Delta” (INCDDD), WWF partner in the project MEASURES – Management and restoration of ecological aquatic corridors for migratory fish species in the Danube basin.
Although it is also called the “Danube Sturgeon”, the Nisetrul is less and less rare in the river waters, being on the IUCN red list of critically endangered species. Like most migratory fish, population decline is caused by the rise of the hydropower sector, overfishing, climate change and pollution, all of which are based on human activity. As a result, not only sturgeons, but most populations of migratory freshwater fish species have declined, on average, by 93% in Europe since 1970 (The Living Planet Index (LPI) for Migratory Freshwater Fish).
Only a few commercial fish species and those on the verge of extinction remain in the Black Sea. 30 years ago, I had a choice of 25 kinds of fish.
Every year, hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical agents arrive in the Black Sea, mainly from ships transiting our waters.
Author: Andreea Perețeanu – ECOM Team Romania