Settlements as a Predictor of Litter
From turkey’s point of view, the part of the Black Sea within Turkey has been the scene of a busy settlement in the last 20-30 years. Settlements along the Black Sea coast occupy narrow coastal plains that are already in a limited area. In the Black Sea coastal region, where the industry works relatively little, the impact of domestic and agricultural sources of pollutants is more intense in marine pollution. Rural and urban settlements observed on the slopes on the two sides of the streams that descend to the Black Sea and on the plains where they meet the sea, and industrial organizations in the flourishing state primarily pollute the streams. As a result of rural settlements and agricultural activities occupying the upper and middle ground of the streams, a massive soil erosion is observed. Unplanned road breaks can accelerate erosion as well as cause slopes to slip. A rapid forest reduction is observed in the land sector of black sea coastal ecosystems. In addition to industrial and domestic pollution, traces of industrial and domestic pollution, as well as pollution from offshore oil waste and bilge waters, are also seen in the sea sector (Ayberg 1995:41). Solid wastes with high organic carbon and low nitrogen content, which are left in trabzon, one of the most important cities of the Northeastern Black Sea, constitute one of the examples of land-based pollution in the region (Berkun and Aras 2007: 778-789).
There is a predominant place of countries with seashore in the formation of pollution in the Black Sea, and in this context, the importance of land-based pollutants is undeniable. 75% of the terrestrial pollutants transported to the Black Sea originate from the Danube river, 20% from the rivers of CIS countries, and the remaining 5% from the Rivers of Turkey and Bulgaria. Quantitatively knowing the contribution of terrestrial pollutants to pollution in the world’s largest anoxic inland sea is of great importance for the development of pollution control strategies in the region (Rifleman 1995:65).
Gorgia has a remarkable place in the contamination of the Black Sea as of terrestrial origin. The Republic of Georgia, which ranked third in terms of environmental pollution among the countries of the former Soviet Union, is in a very difficult situation. Excessive anthropogenic contamination and excessive degradation of ecosystems are still seen today (Lordkipanidze 1995:85). Georgia is one of the worst examples of ecological damage and degradation as a result of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste contamination among this group of countries. Georgia pours large amounts of untreated domestic and industrial waste into rivers and bays into the Black Sea. Refining waste and oil waste from oil storage facilities are poured directly into the sea from Batumi. Sand and sea sediments on the shores where these wastes are poured into the sea consist largely of heavy petroleum components(Georgia Environmental Situation Report 1994:57). The Kubitskali river plays a major role in the emergence of this pollution by transporting waste and residuals from oil refineries in Batumi to the Black Sea (Dassenakis et al. 2006:378-393).
Again today, ecological balances are at stake in Georgia. Pollution caused by various types of industrial and radioactive waste, excessive processing of agricultural areas by the use of chemicals, illegal fishing, the construction of giant dams and hydroelectric power plants have caused this situation as disasters that reign in the coastal waters of these countries.
As a result, the mechanical destruction of the coastline and the destruction of hydrochemical and hydrological systems in coastal waters and especially in river deltas and non-oxygen layers formed on the seafloor. Meanwhile, the unique characteristics of the Black Sea and the intensity of hydrogen sulfide deep in the Black Sea, which has a negative impact on the ecosystem of the Black Sea, should be among the reasons listed above(Poseidon Maritime Association Report 1995:88). In this sense, the Black Sea is facing disaster. Almost no city on the Black Sea coast has a wastewater treatment plant, and those that do not fully function.
As a result, organic matter pollution is increasing. Radioactive pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident has also negatively affected this situation. In the pollution and environmental problems that arise in the Black Sea, especially waste and residi left from Eastern European countries through the Danube River have an important place. Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania pollute the Black Sea, leaving pollutants of agricultural origin in the Danube River (Fröschl 2008:96-105). Every year, roughly 350 km3 of river water flows into the Black Sea from the Danube River, which passes through 800,000 km2 of basin, or a third of continental Europe. The northwest of the Black Sea dish is the place where negative human activities are most intense. Of the total 171 million people living in the Black Sea basin, 81 million live in the Danube river bowl. The Danube is one of the most important international riverbeds in the world. Therefore, all positive or negative developments such as pollution on the Danube require internationally qualified cooperation programmes (Budak 2003:1).
An important element in terms of environmental problems emerging in the Black Sea is Bulgaria. Technical progress has led to a significant deterioration of the ecological balance in Bulgaria. Natural resources are used irrationally. The waters in this country are polluted by the industrial, energy, transportation and agriculture sectors. The region with the most pollution is the Black Sea waters due to the Danube river. Approximately 1,200,000 biogenic elements from Europe are flowed into the Black Sea by the Danube river. The Danube’s basin covers about two-thirds of the Territory of Europe.
Biogenic substances flowed into the sea lead to eutrophication and fluorescens. As a result of this phenomenon, black sea waters become dangerous for the health of those who enter the sea on the shores and lead to the mass disappearance of fauna. It is known that fish in the Black Sea are almost extinct. In the north and north-west regions, the Black Sea is also contaminated by the mix of 34 large and small rivers (Nedialkov 1995b: 39).
Like other coastal countries, the pollution of the Black Sea, where Bulgaria is an important factor, has emerged in a cumulative and multidimensional way. In particular, industrial wastes, sea transportation, chemical agriculture activities, urbanization and tourism-induced wastes pollute the sea by disrupting the quality of water. Waste and residi from many ships transporting large and long rivers and the units located along these rivers are rapidly disrupting the environmental values of the Black Sea (Bondar 1996:33).
Romania is one of the important actors causing environmental pollution, especially in the Black Sea in the size of the Danube basin. In the total area of the hydrographic basin of the Black Sea, the hydrographic basin of the Danube occupies approximately 34% of the space. There is a population of more than 8 million in the hydrographic area of the Danube.
In this basin, complex social and economic activities are developed in the fields of industry, energy, agriculture, tourism, urbanization and transportation that have a significant impact on the environment, and these effects are felt in all dimensions by Romania, a country located in the area where the Danube flows into the Black Sea.
Rapid urbanization and population growth in the Danube basin has led to a significant increase in the amount of wastewater thrown into the riverbed of the Danube. A number of hot spring facilities have been built along the Romanian coast, between four sea ports (Sulina, Midia, Constanta and Mangalia) and cape Midia in the south and the Bulgarian border.
Also in front of its own coast on the continental shelf of the Black Sea, Romania has engaged in oil exploration and extraction activities since 1976. Thousands of ships of various types dock at Romanian sea ports in the Black Sea and sea Danube, and annual sea traffic reaches millions of tons (Bondar and Ciobota 1995:157-164).
In the environmental pollution of the Black Sea, the international and regional nature of the issue has become very important. In addition to the aforementioned countries, Ukraine and the Russian Federation as a coastal country are two very important actors in this pollution. The Black Sea and coastal areas are among the most densely populated places in the world. The black sea watershed covers 14 countries, as well as 24 regions of Ukraine, 12 of the Russian Federation and 4 regions of Belarus. In this way, a significant part of the European population is concentrated in the Black Sea Basin, where industry and agriculture have developed together. This determines the unique anthropogenic load that falls on the wetlands of the Black Sea Basin and the Black Sea itself (Gritsenko et al. 2001:75).
The extent of the pollution in the Black Sea and the environmental problems faced in the final analysis have led the administrations and societies of the countries of the region to look for the question and answer to what can be done about it.
Author: Serdar Yener – Sinop University – Turkey